Hawthorne is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California. The city in 2000 had a population of 84,112.
Hawthorne's first known residents were Indians of the Shoshonian linguistic group, occupying the South Bay, Los Angeles area as early as the 1500s. Portuguese explorer Juan Cabrillo caught sight of the area in October 1542, and 30 years later Sir Francis Drake sailed past the nearby coast. In 1769 title to all land in California became vested in the King of Spain, and the Southbay lands were used for the grazing of cattle. In 1822 Mexico obtained title to California from Spain. One of the ranchos subsequently formed was Sausal Redondo, named after a round clump of willows in the area. Sausal Redondo consisted of approximately 22,460 acres and included the present-day cities of El Segundo, Gardena, Hawthorne, Hermosa Beach, Inglewood, Lawndale, Manhattan Beach, Playa del Rey, Redondo Beach, and Torrance.
In 1837 Governor Alverado of Mexico granted title to Rancho Sausal Redondo to Antonio Ygnacio Avila. When California became a United States territory in 1848 and a state in 1850, disputes arose over the ownership of the rancho. Finally, in 1855 Avila was issued a U.S. Land patent for the rancho and thus became the first legal and recorded owner of the land of present-day Hawthorne.
In 1860 Sir Robert Burnett of Crathe's Castle, Scotland came to California and purchased Sausal Redondo from Avila's heirs. He expanded the sheep and cattle raising operations and planted thousands of eucalyptus, pepper, and fruit trees. Burnett returned to Scotland in 1873 and leased (with an option to buy) the rancho to Daniel Freeman, a Canadian. Freeman restocked the ranch with sheep and cattle and continued planting trees, adding more than 13,000. After the severe droughts of 1875 and 1876, during which he lost thousands of sheep and cattle, Freeman started dry farming and grew barley. By 1880 the area was producing a million bushels of barley a year. Freeman finally used his option to buy Sausal Redondo land and in 1885 received title from Sir Robert Burnett.
In 1887 several groups of investors, encouraged by the narrow-gauge railroad being built, organized several companies and purchased large amounts of towns. One of these was the Hawthorne Land Company. Hawthorne was founded by Benjamin I. Harding and Harry Dana Lombard, who in 1905 purchased acreage from the land company, thus creating the Hawthorne Improvement Company whose purpose was to build an 80-acre town site on the waving barley fields. The name of Hawthorne was chosen by Harding's daughter, Mrs. Laurine Harding Woolwine, who shared her birthday with author Nathaniel Hawthorne.
Hawthorne was advertised as the town between the city and the sea. Special appeals were made to those who wished to raise poultry and grow vegetables. Mr. and Mrs. W.J. Anderson were the first settlers and began building their house in November 1906 at 515 Freeman Avenue. Their son, Glenn, later served as mayor of Hawthorne, Lieutenant Governor of California, and congressman from the California 17th District.
By 1907 Hawthorne had grown to a thriving little town of over one hundred homes. Advertisements lauded Hawthorne as ideal for Homes or Investment Situated directly on the Redondo Electric Car Line - Three Stations on Property, 30 Minutes Ride from the Heart of Los Angeles and right in line of Rapid Growth Toward the Harbor.
In its early days Hawthorne had but one grocery store, and meat was brought by wagon from Inglewood three times a week. There was a furniture factory, an overall factory, a glove factory, and an art leather firm. A small building served as both church and school. The school had 16 pupils ranging from kindergarten to 18 years of age. Mail service began in October 1908.
During the 1930s the town had a whites only policy, with signs posted at its borders reading "Nigger, Don't Let The Sun Set On YOU In Hawthorne".
The first census was taken in 1930 and showed 6,595 residents. In 1939 Northrop Aircraft Inc. (later Northrop Corporation and even later Northrop Grumman Corporation) moved to Hawthorne with 50 people on the payroll. Dozens of firms moved to Hawthorne to acquire Northrop subcontracts. From that time on industrial and commercial development in Hawthorne proceeded at a steady pace. Northrop and Hawthorne enjoyed a long period of prosperity and cooperation. With the growth of the aviation industry and the subsequent aerospace industry, Hawthorne became known as the Cradle of Aviation and enjoyed a boom for many years in both jobs and real estate.
Hawthorne is at According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 15.7 km² (6.1 mi²), all land.(33.917214, -118.348607).
To the north of is the unincorporated community of Lennox and the city of Inglewood. To the east is the unincorporated community of Athens and the city of Gardena. To the south is the unincorporated community of El Camino Village, and the cities of Lawndale and Redondo Beach. Manhattan Beach is at the southwest corner of Hawthorne, and the city of El Segundo is to the west of Hawthorne. The unincorporated community of Del Aire is surrounded on three sides by the city of Hawthorne along western edge of Hawthorne.
The Century Freeway (Glenn Anderson Freeway, I-105) runs along the northern boundary of Hawthorne, with the LACMTA Green Line light rail line running down the center of the Century Freeway. The San Diego Freeway (I-405) runs along the western boundary of Hawthorne. Major east-west streets in Hawthorne include Rosecrans Ave., El Segundo Ave.. and Imperial Highway. Major north-south street include Aviation Blvd., Inglewood Ave., Hawthorne Blvd., Prairie Ave., Crenshaw Blvd., and Van Ness Ave.
Hawthorne is five miles from the Los Angeles International Airport.
Hawthorne, like the rest of the Los Angeles basin is well-known for its year-round pleasant weather:
-On average, the warmest month is August.
-The highest recorded temperature was 111°F in 1961.
-On average, the coolest month is January.
-The lowest recorded temperature was 25°F in 1963.
-The maximum average precipitation occurs in February. Hawthorne has a Mediterranean climate or Dry-Summer Subtropical (Köppen climate classification Csb on the coast, Csa inland), enjoying plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of 263 sunshine days and only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually.
The period of April through November is warm to hot and dry with average high temperatures of 71 - 79°F and lows of 50 - 62°F. Due to the moderating effect of the ocean, temperatures are cooler than more inland areas of Los Angeles, where temperatures frequently exceed 90°F (32°C) and occasionally reach 100°F (38°C).
The Los Angeles area is also subject to the phenomena typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18°F (10°C) between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over one degree per mile (1.6 km) from the coast inland. California has also a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom or May Grey", which sometimes brings overcast or foggy skies in the morning at the coast, but usually gives way to sunny skies by noon, during late spring and early summer.
The Los Angeles region averages 15 inches (385 mm) of precipitation annually, which mainly occurs during the winter and spring (November through April) with generally light rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall and thunderstorms. Coastal areas receive slightly less rainfall, while the mountains receive slightly more. Snowfall is extremely rare in the city basin, but the mountains within city limits typically receive snowfall every winter.
As of the census of 2000, there were 84,112 people, 28,536 households, and 19,775 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,359.0/km² (13,879.4/mi²). There were 29,629 housing units at an average density of 1,887.8/km² (4,889.1/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 29.27% White, 39.02% Black or African American, 0.75% Native American, 6.73% Asian, 0.86% Pacific Islander, 24.16% from other races, and 5.22% from two or more races. 44.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 28,536 households out of which 43.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.6% were married couples living together, 23.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.7% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.50.
In the city the population was spread out with 31.7% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 34.9% from 25 to 44, 16.1% from 45 to 64, and 6.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 92.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,887, and the median income for a family was $35,149. Males had a median income of $29,481 versus $27,427 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,022. About 18.4% of families and 20.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.6% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.
According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $126.1 million in Revenues, $113.2 million in expenditures, $220.2 million in total assets, $152.7 million in total liabilities, and $29.6 million in cash and investments. The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:
|City Manager||Jag Pathirana|
|Airport Director||Arnie Shadbehr|
|Building & Safety Director||Ray Shun|
|Business License Director||Lisa Miller|
|Engineering/Public Works Director||Arnie Shadbehr|
|Housing Director||Hamid Pournamdari|
|Planning & Community Development Director||Harold Roth|
|Recreation & Community Services Assistant Director||Mark Hardison|
In the state legislature Hawthorne is located in the 25th Senate District, represented by Democrat Edward Vincent, and in the 51st Assembly District, represented by Democrat Curren D. Price Jr.. Federally, Hawthorne is located in California's 35th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of D +33 and is represented by Democrat Maxine Waters.
The United States Postal Service Hawthorne Post Office is located at 12700 Inglewood Avenue.