Hayward (pronounced /ˈheɪwərd/; formerly, Haywards, Haywards Station, and Haywood) is a city located in the East Bay in Alameda County. The sixth largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area, it is one of the larger suburbs of Oakland. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 140,030. The estimated population in 2007 is 155,312. The former suburbs of Mt. Eden and Schafer Park have been incorporated into Hayward.
The most recent pre-European inhabitants of the Hayward area were the Ohlone tribe of American Indians. The tribe claims 500 members today.
In the 19th century, the land that is now Hayward became part of Rancho San Lorenzo, a Mexican land grant to Guillermo Castro (1810 - c. 1870) in 1840. The site of his home was on Castro Street (now Mission Boulevard) between C and D Streets, but the structure was severely damaged in the 1868 earthquake on the Hayward Fault that runs directly under that location. In 1930 that site was chosen for the construction of the City Hall which served the City until 1969. The surrounding area is still the center of town.
Hayward was originally known as "Hayward's," then as "Haywood," later as "Haywards," and eventually as "Hayward." There is some disagreement as to how it was named. Some say it was named for Alvinza Hayward, a millionaire from the California Gold Rush. Others believe it was named for William Hayward, who opened a hotel there in 1852. Most historians attribute the name to William Hayward. Regardless of which Hayward the area was named for, it is believed that, because a post office cannot be named after a living person, the name was changed to "Haywood" when the post office was first established. The first post office opened in 1860.
Castro emigrated to Chile with most of his family in 1864, after he lost his land in a card game. His name survives in the community of Castro Valley, located in the valley next to Hayward which Castro used to pasture his cattle. The ranch was split up and sold to various locals, William Hayward among them. William Hayward's fortunes took a turn for the grander when he constructed a resort hotel, which eventually grew to a hundred rooms. The surrounding area came to be called "Hayward's" after the hotel.
William Hayward eventually became the road commissioner for Alameda County. He used his authority to influence the construction of roads in his own favor. He was also an Alameda County Supervisor. In 1876, a town was chartered by the State of California under the name of 'Haywards'. The name of the post office was then able to change because of the loss of the apostrophe before the "s." This change occurred in 1880. It remained "Haywards" until 1910 when the "s" was officially dropped. William Hayward died in 1891.
Hayward grew steadily throughout the late 19th century, with an economy based on agriculture and tourism. Important crops were tomatoes, peaches, cherries, and apricots. Chicken and pigeon raising also played an important part. A rail line between Oakland and San Jose, the South Pacific Coast Railroad was established, but destroyed in an earthquake in 1868. It was rebuilt, and provided a vital commercial link to the markets. The Southern Pacific and Western Pacific railroads, two trans-continental railroads, also provided service to the Hayward area.
During the 1930s, the Harry Rowell Rodeo Ranch at Hayward drew rodeo cowboys from across the continent, and western movie actors such as Slim Pickens and others from Hollywood.
The 1940s and the Second World War brought an economic and population boom to the area, as factories opened to manufacture war material. Many of the workers stayed after the end of the war. Two suburban tract housing pioneers, Oliver Rousseau and David Bohannon built most of the postwar housing in the Hayward area. Today the community of San Lorenzo, built by David Bohannon, is considered a model of a successful postwar tract housing community. Five years after Bohannon perfected the tract housing concept it was copied by the more famous Levittown.
In the late 1950s, Asian Americans across the Bay Area began moving to a new housing development in south Hayward off Ruus Road because of a developer's willingness to sell new homes to Asian Americans. This was significant in light of the housing discrimination against minorities in California at that time.
Downtown Hayward is home to Hayward City Hall and the Hayward Public Library. Located in the City Plaza across the street is the original Hayward City Hall, Centennial Hall, and the Hayward City Center. In recent years, the city has revitalized its downtown area to attract new businesses.
The Hayward Fault goes through downtown Hayward.
The first European settlers in Mt. Eden were a band of pioneers from Mt. Eden, Kentucky who (like Hayward) were drawn to California by the Gold Rush. The party disbanded upon reaching the San Francisco Bay, but a few of them settled at a road crossing. They nailed a sign reading "Mt. Eden" to two trees, and the name stuck.
A town developed at this bayshore site. It also had agriculture, but whereas Hayward was a tourist destination, Mt. Eden developed Bay shipping and salt-harvesting industries. The salt companies gradually consolidated; after the demise of the Oliver Salt Company in 1931, only the Leslie Salt Company remained. The shipping industry suffered from increasing competition from roads and railroads. Mt. Eden experienced significant immigration from northern Germany and Denmark.
The historic center of Mt. Eden (now a freeway interchange) was around Telegraph Avenue (now known as Hesperian Boulevard) between Depot Road and Jackson Street. The town was incorporated into Hayward in the late 1950s, though the post office and town name continued to be used until 1984 when the U. S. Postal Service decommissioned the post office.
Schafer Park is named for A.W. Schafer, a German immigrant who purchased land in the area in the 1860s. The family sold its land to a real estate developer in the 1950s. Schafer Park was located between the two other cities.
The economy of early Hayward was based largely on the Hunt Brothers Cannery, later known as Hunt-Wesson Foods, opened in Hayward in 1895 by the brothers William and Joseph Hunt, fruit packers originally from Sebastopol, California. The Hunts originally packed local fruit, including cherries, peaches, and apricots, then added tomatoes, which became the mainstay of their business. At its height in the 1960s and 1970s, Hunt's operated three canneries in Hayward (A Street, B Street, and C Street at the Southern Pacific railroad tracks), an adjacent can-making company, a pickle factory, and a glass manufacturing plant. From the 1890s until its closure in 1981, Hunt's employed nearly every available person to process its foods. The impact of Hunt's on the Hayward economy was so large that the air around Hayward was permeated by the smell of tomato ketchup for three months of each year. The canneries closed in 1981 because there were no longer enough produce fields or fruit orchards near the cannery to make the plants economically feasible. Much of the production was moved to the Sacramento Valley.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 163.3 km² (63.0 mi²). 114.8 km² (44.3 mi²) of it is land and 48.5 km² (18.7 mi²) of it (29.68%) is water.
The community is served by Hayward Executive Airport.
As of the census of 2000, there were 140,030 people, 44,804 households, and 31,945 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,219.6/km² (3,158.6/mi²). There were 45,922 housing units at an average density of 400.0/km² (1,035.8/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 43% White, 11% Black or African American, 0.84% Native American, 19% Asian, 1.91% Pacific Islander, 16.81% from other races, and 7.52% from two or more races. 34.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 44,804 households out of which 37.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.7% were non-families. 20.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.08 and the average family size was 3.58.
In the city the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 98.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $51,177, and the median income for a family was $54,712. Males had a median income of $37,711 versus $31,481 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,695. About 7.2% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.7% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.
Southland Mall is the largest shopping center in the City of Hayward. It currently houses the department stores Sears, Macy's, JC Penney and other retailers and also has an underground food court with a large TimeOut Arcade. There are also numerous small shopping strips throughout the city that include retailers like Home Depot, Office Depot, and Target
A downtown district includes the current City Hall as well as many small businesses, a theater, and restaurants. Hayward was the headquarters of Mervyns before it filed for bankruptcy.
Hayward is served by Interstate 880 (Nimitz Freeway) and Interstate 238. Interstate 580 is just north of the city. It is also served by State Route 92 (Jackson Street) and State Route 238 (Mission Boulevard/Foothill Boulevard). Mission Boulevard has been long known for chronic traffic congestion because of the lack of a freeway alternative to I-880; past proposals to convert Mission Boulevard to a freeway or build the 238 bypass have been controversial. Mission, Jackson and Foothill all converge into one congested intersection south of downtown locally known as "Five Flags", and there has been talk of building an overpass to alleviate traffic. Otherwise, due to congestion in the immediate downtown area affecting local businesses, a new plan on the books is to convert A Street, Mission and Foothill to one-way thoroughfares counterclockwise.
BART has two stations in Hayward: Hayward, in the downtown district; and South Hayward, near the Hayward-Union City border. The AC Transit bus system also serves the Hayward community. Amtrak, the national rail passenger system, provides daily service at Hayward with the Capitol Corridor, which runs between San Jose and Auburn.
Hayward is served by the Hayward Unified school District, consisting of four high schools, Mt. Eden High School, Tennyson High School, Hayward High School, Eden ROP and the New Haven Unified School District. Conley-Caraballo High School serves part of South Hayward. A large private high school called Moreau Catholic High School serves Hayward and southern Alameda County. Hayward also is home to five middle schools. Anthony W. Ochoa Middle School, serves the west part of Hayward; Bret Harte Middle School serves the Downtown Hayward area and the North Part of the hills area; Chavez Middle school serves the Fairway Park area and the south part of the hills; Martin Luther King Jr. Middle School serves the area around Mt. Eden; and Winton Middle School.
Hayward is home to the main campus of California State University, East Bay, formerly known as California State University, Hayward. California State University, East Bay is a public university within the California State University system. Hayward is also the location of Chabot College, a community college whose roster of alumni includes actor Tom Hanks. Hayward is also home to Zaytuna Institute founded by Hamza Yusuf Hanson, a prominent Islamic scholar.
Hayward has a daily newspaper called the Daily Review, part of the Alameda Newspaper Group of newspapers in the Bay Area. Local television stations, AM and FM radio from Oakland and San Francisco reach Hayward, and stations from San Jose, Sacramento and Salinas reach Hayward as well, as well as cable carrier, Comcast.