Palm Springs is a famed Riverside County, California, USA, desert resort city, approximately 110 miles (177 km) east of Los Angeles and 140 miles (225 km) northeast of San Diego. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 42,807. Palm Springs possesses some of the most famous golf courses in the country. Swimming, tennis, horseback riding and hiking in the beautiful nearby desert and mountain areas are other major forms of recreation in Palm Springs. It is one of nine adjacent cities that make up the Coachella Valley (Palm Springs area). The area code for Palm Springs is 760. The ZIP codes for Palm Springs are 92262 through 92264.
Known as the "Playground of the Stars," Palm Springs is a small city with the legacy, amenities and history of a large, cosmopolitan city. Palm Springs lies at the foot of one of Southern California's most majestic mountain peaks, 10,834-foot (3,300 m) San Jacinto Peak, whose eastern flank abuts downtown. It is not unusual to swim in 80-degree Fahrenheit (27-degree Celsius) weather while looking up at snow covered peaks.
|Palm Springs, California|
|- City Manager||David H. Ready|
|- City||246.3 km² (95.1 sq mi)|
|- Land||244.1 km² (94.2 sq mi)|
|- Water||2.2 km² (0.8 sq mi)|
|- Density||185.7/km² (481/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC-8)|
|- Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
The Agua Caliente band of Cahuilla Indians is composed of several small groups of Indians who were living in the modern day Palm Springs area when the Agua Caliente Reservation was established by the United States Government in 1896. Archaeological research has shown that the Cahuilla have lived in the area for the past 350-500 years. The reservation occupies 32,000 acres (130 km²), of which 6,700 acres (27 km²) lie within the city limits, making the Agua Caliente band the city's largest landowner. The reservation land was originally composed of alternating squares of land laid out across the desert in a checkerboard pattern. The alternating, non-reservation squares, were provided by the United States Government to the Southern Pacific Railroad as an incentive to bring rail lines through the open desert. Tribal enrollment is currently estimated at between 296 and 365 people. The Cahuilla name for the area was "Se-Khi" (boiling water). In the early 1800s, Spanish explorers named the area "Agua Caliente" (hot water). An alternative use of palm is revealed in the November 1992 issue of Art of California. At least one Spanish explorer referred to the area as la Palma de la Mano de dios or "The Palm of God's hand," (page 45). The current name for the area is "Palm Springs" which likely came into common usage in the mid-1860s when the land was first surveyed by U.S. Government surveyors who noted that a local mineral spring was located at the base of “two bunches of palms". By 1884 when San Francisco attorney John Guthrie McCallum settled in Palm Springs, the name was already in wide acceptance.
From the 1930s to the 1970s, Palm Springs was home to many of Hollywood's most glamorous stars. Major stars and celebrities such as Al Jolson, Greta Garbo, Cary Grant, Steve McQueen, Liberace, William Powell, William Holden, Alice Faye, George Montgomery, Howard Hughes, Bob Hope, Elvis Presley, Debbie Reynolds, Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Sonny Bono, Cher, Kirk Douglas, Jack Benny, Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin, owned houses in Palm Springs during this period, giving the town world-wide fame as the "Playground of the Stars."
Many celebrities continue to maintain homes in the Palm Springs area, including Carol Channing, Berry Gordy, Nancy Sinatra, William Devane, Kaye Ballard, Buddy Greco, Ruta Lee, Jack Jones, Arnold Palmer and Grammy Award Winning Songwriter and Producer Billy Steinberg who is known for penning hits such as Like a Virgin, True Colors, Eternal Flame and many others who enjoy living in the desert without fanfare.
In addition to these film and stage personalities, the Palm Springs area has been visited and settled by United States Presidents Dwight David Eisenhower, Ronald Reagan, and Gerald Ford. The famed Betty Ford Center is in the area, as is Eisenhower Medical Center. Publisher Walter Annenberg settled in nearby Rancho Mirage. Celebrities still retreat to Palm Springs, but today the city's economy centers on tourism, hospitality, conventions, real estate, health care, shopping, and gambling.
Palm Springs continues to be a popular film location for the movie industry. American Gigolo (1980), Diamonds Are Forever (1971), Mission: Impossible III (2006), Ocean's Eleven (2001), The Scorpion King (2002), Torque (2004), Palm Springs Weekend (1963) and dozens of other features have used the Palm Springs area for location shots. Television shows are also filmed in the area, including Welcome to the Parker (2007) and an episode of Bam's Unholy Union. Queens of the Stone Age frontman Josh Homme was born here.
As the 1970s drew to a close, increasing numbers of retirees moved to the Coachella Valley. As a result, Palm Springs began to evolve from a virtual ghost town in the summer to a year-round community. Businesses and hotels that used to shutter for the months of July and August instead remained open all summer. Many well located hotels feature discount rates and packages in the new off season. The Palm Mountain Resort and Spa features midweek fall rates as low as $69. As commerce grew, so too did the number of families with children. Despite the increased activity, Palm Springs retained much of its 1930s charm, with older, Mediterannean-style estates and lush gardens, and sophisticated mid-century enclaves with wide expanses of glass breathtaking views of the valley below.
The current gay and lesbian population in Palm Springs is estimated to be about seven times the national average.  This concentration is even greater than that of San Francisco, which has approximately five times the national average. Gay residents represent about 35 percent of those who are year-round residents.
Some reasons for the predominant gay culture in Palm Springs could be the idyllic atmosphere, the beauty of the landscape, the year round sunshine, superb sport, a demographic make-up of well-educated citizens and a spirit of small town friendliness yet "big city" sophistication. There are also over 35 openly-gay resort hotels in the city, making Palm Springs an important gay vacation destination as well. The annual Gay Pride Parade and Festival is held the first weekend in November and in recent years has grown to attract more than 35,000 spectators who line Palm Canyon Drive for the event. The largest gay events in the area, however, occur in March or April, with the "White Party" attracting thousands of gay men for parties and concerts and Dinah Shore Weekend (held on the same weekend as, but not officially affiliated with the Kraft Nabisco LPGA Championship held in nearby Rancho Mirage), one of the largest events in the country for gay women.
The newest residents of Palm Springs, who tend to be younger nowadays, have acquired an appreciation for mid-century modern architecture which is part of the sophistication and historic significance of Palm Springs. This tradition of architecture grew out of the aesthetics of the world-renowned German Bauhaus and is reflected in the work of Albert Frey (who designed the Palm Springs city hall, tram station, Movie Colony Hoteland airport), Donald Wexler, Richard Neutra, and other world-famous architects. A home developer, Alexander Homes, popularized this post-and-beam architectural style in the Coachella Valley. Alexander houses and similar homes are much sought after and feature low pitched roofs, wide eaves, open-beamed ceilings and floor-to-ceiling windows to create an indoor/outdoor ambiance most suitable for private, pool-side living in a desert climate. One exponent of today's revival of the mid-century style and associated styles in furniture and textiles is Christopher "Red" Ercoli, whose own postmodern architectural style has become a staple in many downtown buildings. Restoration projects are now being undertaken all over the city to return these homes and businesses to their original condition. Students of mid-century architecture and design come to the city to study its heritage in this unusual style of the decorative arts.
Palm Springs is located at GR1.(33.823990, -116.530339)
Palm Springs is sheltered by the Little San Bernardino Mountains to the north, the Santa Rosa Mountains to the south, and the San Jacinto Mountains to the west. This geography gives Palm Springs its famed warm, dry climate, with 354 days of sunshine and less than 6 inches of rain annually. Winter temperatures average in the 70s with nights in the low-to-mid 40s, but the dry desert heat of summer pushes daytime temperatures well above 100, with overnight temperatures in the mid-to-upper 70s. In general, very high temperatures in the summer are made bearable by the dryness of the desert heat. Summer evenings and nights are very pleasant.
Average seasonal temperatures:
As of the 2000 censusGR2, there were 42,807 people, 20,516 households, and 9,457 families residing in the city. The population density was 175.4/km² (454.2/mi²). There were 30,823 housing units at an average density of 126.3/km² (327.0/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 78.33% White, 3.93% African American, 0.94% Native American, 3.83% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 9.78% from other races, and 3.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.72% of the population.
16.3% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 53.9% were non-families. 41.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the city the population was spread out with 17.0% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 26.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 107.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,973 and the median income for a family was $45,318. Males had a median income of $33,999 versus $27,461 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,957. The relatively low income reflects the presence of a large retired population and a large population of owners of second homes whose income is not reported. About 11.2% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.2% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.
Celebrities still retreat to Palm Springs, but today the city's economy centers on tourism, real estate, health care, shopping and gambling. It is a city of numerous festivals, conventions and international events.
The world's largest rotating tramcars can be found at the Palm Springs Aerial Tramway. These cars ascend two-and-a-half miles up a steep incline to reveal dramatic, sweeping valley views. The ascent from desert floor to an altitude in excess of 8,500 feet is accompanied by a drop in temperature of 30 degrees or more, giving riders a cool respite from the heat on a hot summer day. A wilderness area can be explored at the top of the tram and there is a restaurant with spectacular views.
The Palm Springs International Film Festival presents movie star-filled, red carpet affairs. The Palm Springs Follies stage-show spectacular brings one of the last of the authentic vaudeville shows still presented in the United States; one of the unique aspects of the show is that all of the perfomers are over the age of 55. Every Thursday evening downtown Palm Springs is transformed into Village Fest, featuring a diverse display of arts and crafts, a certified farmer's market, food, and live entertainment on beautiful Palm Canyon Drive. The Palm Springs Convention Center underwent a multi-million-dollar expansion and remodeling in 2005
The Palm Springs Art Museum is a cultural treasure, presenting traveling art exhibitions and an impressive current collection plus a variety of entertainment in its Annenberg Theater. The Agua Caliente band of Cahuilla Indians has added an exciting vibrancy to downtown with the luxurious Spa Resort Hotel and Casino. There are other casinos in the Coachella Valley as well, notably in the cities of Rancho Mirage, Indio, Coachella and Cabazon.
Numerous five star hotels, restaurants and attractions cater to tourists, while shoppers can find high-end boutiques nearby, which include "The River" in Rancho Mirage and "El Paseo" in Palm Desert, the Coachella Valley's answer to Rodeo Drive. There is a water park and several skateboard parks. Last, but not least, there are hundreds of excellent restaurants throughout the valley.
Palm Springs, because of its beauty and resort style of living, has had special appeal to senior citizens and the gay community. With the peace and spirituality of its desert and mountain setting, and its many activities and points of interest, Palm Springs is again attracting the attention of international travelers, young people, and those who want to live in or retire to one of the most unusual and attractive resort areas in North America.
The City of Palm Springs is a charter city, with a charter adopted by the voters in 1994. It consists of a Council-Manager government, with a five-person city council that hires a city manager and city attorney. The mayor is directly elected and serves a four-year term. The other four council members also serve four-year terms, with staggered elections. The City is considered a full-service city, in that it staffs and manages its own police and fire departments including a jail, parks and recreation programs, public library, sewer system and wastewater treatment plant, international airport, and planning and building services. The city council also serves as the Community Redevelopment Agency, the Housing Authority, and the Financing Authority.
Public education in Palm Springs is under the jurisdiction of the Palm Springs Unified School District, an independent district with five board members. The District has fourteen elementary schools, four middle schools, three comprehensive high schools, one continuation high school, one independent study program, eight headstart/state preschools, three full-day headstart programs, four childcare programs, and an extensive adult education program. The PSUSD serves the Desert Communities of Cathedral City, Desert Hot Springs, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Rancho Mirage and Thousand Palms. 
The Palm Springs Unified School District has four middle schools: Desert Springs Middle School, James Workman Middle School, Nellie N. Coffman Middle School and Raymond Cree Middle School. The largest middle school in the Palm Springs Unified School District, Desert Springs Middle School  is located in Desert Hot Springs and serves approximately 1,800 students in grades six through eight. James Workman Middle School  is located in Cathedral City and serves the north side of Cathedral City and a small portion of Palm Springs. James Workman serves approximately 1,500 students in grades six through eight. Nellie N. Coffman Middle School  is located in Cathedral City and serves approximately 1,200 students in grades six through eight. Raymond Cree Middle School is located in Palm Springs and is the smallest middle school in the Palm Springs Unified School District. Raymond Cree  serves approximately 1,000 students in grades six through eight.
Private schools in Palm Springs and nearby communities include Desert Adventist Academy (K-8), Desert Chapel (K-12), St. Teresa's (K-8), King's School (K-8), Desert Christian (K-12), and Marywood-Palm Valley (K-12). The Roman Catholic Diocese of San Bernardino has committed to building a new Catholic high school in the Coachella Valley, called St. Xavier's.
The Desert Community College District, headquartered in Palm Desert with its main campus, College of the Desert located there. California State University, San Bernardino and University of California, Riverside have satellite campuses available within the College of the Desert campus.
Palm Springs is home to the Palm Springs Power, a California league baseball team composed of college all stars. The Palm Springs Stadium, was once the spring training site of the California Angels (now Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim) American League baseball team from 1961 to 1993.
The Palm Springs area features a number of sporting events including the Pacific Life Open, one of the most significant tennis events in the world, after the four Grand Slam tournaments; the Bob Hope Chrysler Classic, the Kraft Nabisco Championship, and dozens of boxing events held throughout the valley. Palm Springs has also hosted the Easter Bowl, the national junior tennis championships, and several NCAA golf tournaments.