Cupertino (pronounced /ˌkuːpərˈtiːnoʊ/) is a suburban city in Santa Clara County, California, U.S., directly west of San Jose on the western edge of the Santa Clara Valley with portions extending into the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. The population was 50,546 at the time of the 2000 census. The town has given its name to the Cupertino effect.
Cupertino was named after Arroyo San José de Cupertino (now Stevens Creek). The creek had been named by Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza's cartographer, who named it after Saint Joseph of Cupertino. Saint Joseph (born Giuseppe Maria Desa, and later known as Giuseppe da Copertino) was named after the town of Copertino in the Apulia region of Italy. Copertino, the Italian diminutive of coperto, translates to "little blanket." The name Cupertino first became widely used when John T. Doyle, a San Francisco lawyer and historian, named his winery on McClellan Road "Cupertino". After the turn of the twentieth century, Cupertino displaced the former name for the region, which was "West Side".
Cupertino in the 1800s was a small rural village at the crossroads of Stevens Creek Road and Saratoga-Mountain View Road (also known locally as Highway 9; later Saratoga-Sunnyvale Road, and then renamed to De Anza Boulevard within Cupertino city limits). Back then, it was known as the West Side and was part of Fremont Township. The primary economic activity was fruit agriculture. Almost all of the land within Cupertino's present-day boundaries were covered by prune, plum, apricot, and cherry orchards. A winery on Montebello Ridge overlooking the Cupertino valley region was also operating by the late 1800s.
Soon railroads, electric railways, and dirt roads traversed the West Side farmlands. Monta Vista, Cupertino's first housing tract, was developed in the mid-1900s as a result of the electric railway's construction.
After World War II, a population and suburban housing boom dramatically shifted the demographics and economy of the Santa Clara Valley, as the "Valley of Heart's Delight" was beginning to transform into "Silicon Valley". In 1954, Cupertino leaders began to drive for incorporation as they were concerned about unplanned development and rising property taxes. In the September 27, 1955 election, voters approved the incorporation of the City of Cupertino. Cupertino officially became Santa Clara County's 13th City on October 10, 1955.
A major milestone in Cupertino's development was the creation by some of the city's largest landowners of VALLCO Business and Industrial Park in the early 1960s. Of the 25 property owners, 17 decided to pool their land to form VALLCO Park, 6 sold to Varian Associates (property later sold to Hewlett-Packard), and two opted for transplanting to farms elsewhere. The name VALLCO was derived from the names of the principal developers: Varian Associates and the Leonard, Lester, Craft, and Orlando families. A neighborhood outdoor shopping center and, much later, the enclosed Vallco Fashion Park (now Cupertino Square) were also developed. Other notable businesses headquartered in Cupertino include Apple and Symantec Corporation.
De Anza College opened in 1967. The college, named for Juan Bautista De Anza, occupies a 112-acre (0.45 km2) site that was the location of a winery built at the turn of the last century, called Beaulieu by its owners, Charles and Ella Baldwin. Their mansion has now become the California History Center. De Anza College now has about 22,000 students and is a hub of activity in the city. Its flea market, held the first Saturday of the month, attracts thousands from around the area.
Housing developments were rapidly constructed in the following years as developers created many neighborhoods, including Fairgrove, Garden Gate, Monta Vista, Seven Springs, and many other developments. Although originally low-cost housing, Silicon Valley's housing prices shot up dramatically as many houses that were formerly lowly priced became multi-million dollar homes. The high cost of living in Cupertino is attributed by people wanting their children to receive high quality schooling. Nevertheless, the price of housing seems to have weathered even the 2007-8 slump in economy. Eichler homes are popular and even sought after in Rancho Rinconada Fairgrove neighborhood.
As of the census of 2000, there were 50,546 people, 18,204 households, and 13,613 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,171.1 inhabitants per square mile (1,224.4 /km2). There were 18,682 housing units at an average density of 1,707.1 /sq mi (659.1 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 50.1% White American, 0.7% Black or African American, 0.20% American Indian, 44.4% Asian American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.3% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. 4.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 18,204 households out of which 41.6% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 63.9% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.2% were non-families. 19.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the city the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 33.0% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 11.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 99.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males.
According to the 2005-2007 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the city was $118,635, and the median income for a family was $133,098. The per capita income for the city was $44,774. About 3.6% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.
According to the 2005-2007 American Community Survey, White Americans made up 37.4% of Cupertino's population. African Americans now made up 1.5% of Cupertino's population and American Indians made up 0.4% of the city's population. In addition, Cupertino now has an Asian American majority as this group now represents 55.7% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans remained at 0.1% of the population. Also, 2.5% of the population are from some other race and 2.4% of the population are from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos remained at 4.0% of Cupertino's population. In the 2000 Census, non-Hispanic whites made up 47.8% of Cupertino's population. According to the 2005-2007 American Community Survey, non-Hispanic whites now represented 35.3% of the city's population. The exodus of non-Hispanic white families is being replaced by an influx of Asian families, hence Cupertino's new Asian majority, which did not exist at the time of the 2000 Census. Nonetheless, Cupertino still retains a large non-Hispanic white population. The Asian population mainly consists of Chinese Americans and Indian Americans with smaller populations of Korean Americans and Japanese Americans. Due to Cupertino's Asian majority and its large non-Hispanic white minority, the multiracial community mainly consists of Eurasians whom number around at 800 individuals. Cupertino's black population has grown slightly since the 2000 Census but remains small. The city's Hispanic and Latino population remains visible, but still not large as Cupertino remains predominantly Asian with a large non-Hispanic white minority.
Cupertino was the only city with both a population over 50,000 and a median household income in excess of $100,000 in 2000.