Elk Grove is a city in Sacramento County, California, located just south of the state capital of Sacramento. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area. State population estimates place the city's population at 136,318 as of January 1, 2007.  The second-largest city in Sacramento County, Elk Grove earned the title of the fastest growing city in the U.S between July 1, 2004 and July 1, 2005.
Elk Grove was founded in 1850 as a stage stop. It is located about 15 miles (24 km) south of historic Sutter’s Fort and thus became a crossroads for business, entertainment, mail service and agriculture, and acted as home base for gold miners in nearby communities. After it played its part in the early gold rush and statehood history in California, a close-knit community evolved with a distinctly rural and western lifestyle.
Initially, the town developed around a stage stop on the Monterey Trail, though after the railroad passed by east of town, Elk Grove's center shifted to its present location. "Old Town" Elk Grove is located about a mile east of State Route 99 (formerly U.S. Route 99, the north-south artery of the California Central Valley). Although the town developed around agriculture, it would eventually become a residential suburb of Sacramento. Most newer housing developments in Elk Grove lie west between Highway 99 and Interstate 5, the major north-south highway for the U.S. West Coast, in two areas locally called "Laguna Creek" and "Laguna West".
In 2000, Elk Grove incorporated as a city.
In 2008 CNN stated that areas of Elk Grove suffered from the subprime mortgage crisis.
Elk Grove is located at 38°26'18" North, 121°22'55" West (38.438222, -121.381925).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 15.2 square miles (39.4 km²), of which, 15.2 square miles (39.4 km²) of it is land and none of it is covered by water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 59,984 people, 18,526 households, and 15,358 families residing in the CDP. State population estimates place the city's population at 136,318 as of January 1, 2007 The population density was 3,947.0 people per square mile (1,523.7/km²). There were 18,894 housing units at an average density of 1,243.3/sq mi (479.9/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 59.12% White, 8.52% Black or African American, 0.94% Native American, 17.59% Asian, 0.59% Pacific Islander, 6.44% from other races, and 6.79% from two or more races. 14.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 18,526 households out of which 49.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.0% are married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 17.1% were non-families. 12.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.5% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.22 and the average family size is 3.51.
In the CDP the population was spread out with 32.9% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males.
According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household was $79,622, and the median income for a family was $83,969, 5.2% of the population and 3.8% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 6.0% of those under the age of 18 and 4.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
The Elk Grove Unified School District is the 5th largest school district in California and one of the fastest growing school districts in the nation. Located in southern Sacramento County, the district covers 320 square miles (830 km2), one-third of the county. For the 2002-03 school year, the district served more than 52,500 students, and expects to reach 73,000 students by 2010. Those students attend 38 elementary schools, 8 middle schools, 8 high schools and 4 alternative high schools. The school district recently opened a new middle/high school, Pinkerton Middle and Cosumnes Oaks High. The new school opens just as the school district enters its 50th year of existence during the 2008-2009 school year.
There are also several private schools in town. A local community college, Cosumnes River College, offers both vocational training and a transfer program to four-year universities. Located nearby are California State University, Sacramento and the University of California, Davis, as well as branches of Golden Gate University and St. Mary's College.
The new Elk Grove Public Library is located at 8900 Elk Grove Blvd in a modern two story building. It moved to this location from just a block East.
The Franklin Community Library, which also functions as the library for Franklin High School and Toby Johnson Middle School, is located at 10055 Franklin High Road.
Elk Grove's climate varies from low temperatures of 24 to 44 degrees Fahrenheit to highs of 80 to 115 degrees. Average annual rainfall is 22 inches (560 mm) per year falling primarily from October through April. The elevation of the city is 45 feet (14 m).
The City of Elk Grove incorporated on July 1, 2000. It is a general law city and operates on the Manager-City Council type of governance. The current Mayor of Elk Grove for 2009 is Patrick Hume (District 2). The remaining councilpersons are Gary Davis (District 4), James Cooper (District 1), Steve Detrick (District 3) and Sophia Scherman (District 5).
Elk Grove is represented on the Sacramento County Board of Supervisors by Don Nottoli, 5th district supervisor.
Fire protection, emergency medical services, and parks and recreation services in Elk Grove are provided by the Cosumnes Community Services District, an independent special district agency.
In the state legislature Elk Grove is located in the 1st Senate District, represented by Republican Dave Cox, , and in the 10th and 15th Assembly Districts, represented by Democrat Alyson Huber and Joan Buchannan respectively. Federally, Elk Grove is located in California's 3rd and 5th congressional districts, which have Cook PVIs of R +7 and D +14 respectively  and is represented by Republican Dan Lungren and Democrat Doris Matsui respectively.
Elk Grove is represented by a variety of Democrats and Republicans in Sacramento and Washington, DC.
Elk Grove is split between the 3rd congressional district which is represented by Dan Lungren, a Republican and the 5th Congressional District which is represented by Doris Matsui, a Democrat.
Elk Grove is split between the 9th assembly district which is represented by Dave Jones, a Democrat, the 10th assembly district which is represented by Alyson Huber, a Democrat, and the 15th State Assembly District which is represented by Joan Buchanan, also a Democrat.
Elk Grove is also split between the 1st Senate District which is represented by Dave Cox, a Republican, and the 5th State Senate District which is represented by Lois Wolk, a Democrat.
Elk Grove is divided into several major areas which are: Laguna West, Laguna Creek, Elk Grove proper, East Elk Grove, and big parts of the Sheldon, and Franklin townships. Laguna West is between Interstate 5 and the Union Pacific railroad tracks. Laguna Creek is bordered by the city limits to the south, Sheldon Road to the north, the Union Pacific railroad tracks to the west, and Highway 99 to the east. Elk Grove proper - which includes the Historic District (Historic Elk Grove) - is bordered by Highway 99 to the west, Waterman Road to the east, Calvine Road to the north, and Grant Line Road to the south. East Elk Grove is bordered by Calvine Road to the north, Grant Line Road to the east and south, and Waterman Road to the west.
Two major freeways pass through Elk Grove. They are Interstate 5, which skims the western part of town, and State Route 99, which passes more directly through town. Major surface streets in Elk Grove include Elk Grove Boulevard, Laguna Boulevard, Bond Road, Sheldon Road, Calvine Road, Franklin Boulevard, Bruceville Road, Big Horn Boulevard, Elk Grove-Florin Road, Waterman Road, Bradshaw Road, and Grant Line Road.
The primary hub for air transportation for the Sacramento region, including Elk Grove, is Sacramento International Airport. The airport is located about 25 miles (40 km) north of Elk Grove. Elk Grove is also served by the Elk Grove Airport, a privately owned public use facility located on Grant Line Road near Bradshaw Road.
Elk Grove also has adopted its own public transit system, called e-tran.
Until July 2006, the police forces within the city of Elk Grove were operated under contract with the Sacramento County Sheriff's Department. Effective July 1, 2006, the city of Elk Grove completed the establishment of its own independent police force, which has patrolled the city since then.