Marianna is a city in Jackson County, Florida, United States. The population was 6,230 at the 2000 census. It is thecounty seat of Jackson County and is home to Chipola College. The official nickname of Marianna is "The City of Southern Charm."
Jackson County Courthouse
|Motto: "City Of Southern Charm "|
Location in Jackson County and the state of Florida
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2008)|
Marianna was founded in 1828 and named the county seat the following year, supplanting the earlier settlement of Webbville, which soon dissolved and no longer exists.
It is the final resting place of the Confederate governor of Florida, GovernorJohn Milton, and the scene of a minor Civil War battle between a small home guard of about 150 boys, old men, and wounded soldiers, and a contingent of approximately 900 Federal troops.
Governor Milton, who owned the Milton Plantation and hundreds of slaves, was the governor of Florida during the Civil War years. Governor Milton was vehemently against the Confederate States of America reuniting with the United States of America. He vowed that he would rather die than see the Confederates reunite with the Unionist states.
In late spring 1865, as federal troops were preparing to make control of Tallahassee, Governor Milton received word the Civil War had ended and that Florida would, once again, be part of the United States. After receiving this news, Milton died of a gunshot wound. Historians relate that Milton committed suicide.
Marianna was also the site of the 1934 brutal torture and lynching of Claude Neal, an African American man accused of rape and murder. The national publicity generated by the lynching, and resulting protests, played a significant role in the history of the United States by helping to inspire national anti-lynching laws. After the lynching there were race riots when the KKK tried to ethnically cleanse Marianna from any African American residents. The six vigilantes that led the lynching remain unnamed.
The Florida School for Boys, a reform school operated by the state of Florida, was located in Marianna from January 1, 1900, to June 30, 2011. For a time, it was the largest juvenile reform institution in the United States. Throughout its 111-year history, the school gained a reputation for abuse, beatings, rapes, torture, and even murder of students by staff. Despite periodic investigations, changes of leadership, and promises to improve, the allegations of cruelty and abuse continued. Many of the allegations were confirmed by separate investigations by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement in 2010 and the Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice in 2011. State authorities closed the school permanently in June 2011. In 2015, an investigation by the University of South Florida revealed details of a secret "rape dungeon", where boys younger than 12 were sexually abused, and positively identified five bodies from those recovered at the site.
Marianna is located at (30.776370, -85.238149).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 8.1square miles (21 km2), of which 8.0 square miles (21 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) (0.37%) is water.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,230 people, 2,398 households, and 1,395 families residing in the city. The population densitywas 776.1 inhabitants per square mile (299.6/km²). There were 2,764 housing units at an average density of 344.3 per square mile (132.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 56.82% White, 40.16% African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.87% from other races, and 1.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.60% of the population.
There were 2,398 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.3% were married couples living together, 20.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.8% were non-families. 38.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.96.
In the city the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 22.3% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, and 20.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $23,861, and the median income for a family was $29,590. Males had a median income of $28,500 versus $21,530 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,021. About 20.9% of families and 28.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.7% of those under age 18 and 34.6% of those age 65 or over.
Jackson County School Board operates public K-12 schools. Marianna has five schools, all of which usually perform in the high C-low B range in the state's FCAT grade scale. Golson for grades K-2, Riverside Elementary for grades 3-5, Marianna Middle School for grades 6-8, and Marianna High School for grades 9-12. Dayspring Christian Academy, a private school, holds grades K-8.
Chipola College, home of the Chipola Indians, is the choice for many residents and offers dual-enrollment classes for high school students. The college is a 4-year state institution offering Bachelor's degrees in nine programs. Additionally, students can earn Masters and Doctoral degrees on the Chipola Campus through Troy State University, University of Florida, University of West Florida, and Florida State University.