Hanceville is located in southeastern Cullman County at34°3′48″N 86°45′39″W (34.063463, -86.760908). U.S. Route 31 passes through the city, leading north 9 miles (14 km) to Cullman, the county seat, and south 14 miles (23 km) to Smoke Rise.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.2 square miles (10.9 km2), of which 0.02 square miles (0.04 km2), or 0.34%, is water.
Hanceville High School serves 342 students in grades 9-12. The school colors are purple and gold, and its mascot are the Bulldogs. It is a member of the Cullman County Board of Education. In 2001 the Lady Bulldogs basketball team won the Alabama High School Athletic Association Class 3A State Championship.