Manchester is the largest city in the U.S. state of New Hampshire and the largest city of northern New England, an area composed of Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine. It is in Hillsborough County on the banks of the Merrimack River. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 107,007, and in 2005 the New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning estimated the population to be nearly 110,000. Manchester is the center of the Manchester, NH, New England City and Town Metropolitan Area (NECTA MA), with a population in 2000 of 176,663, and is near the northern end of the BosWash megalopolis.
Pennacook Indians called the area Amoskeag, meaning "good fishing place" -- a reference to the Amoskeag Falls in the Merrimack River. In 1722, John Goffe settled on land beside Cohas Brook, where several years later he built a dam and sawmill. The community was called Old Harry's Town. In 1735, the Province of Massachusetts Bay granted it as Tyngstown to settlers from Massachusetts. A decade following the separation of New Hampshire from Massachusetts, Governor Benning Wentworth in 1751 chartered the town as Derryfield.
In 1807, Samuel Blodgett opened a canal and lock system to allow vessels passage around the falls. He envisioned here a great industrial center, "the Manchester of America," like the Industrial Revolution's Manchester in England, the first industrialized city in the world. Sure enough, in 1809, Benjamin Prichard and others built a cotton spinning mill operated by water power on the western bank of the Merrimack. Following Blodgett's suggestion, Derryfield was renamed Manchester in 1810, the year the mill was incorporated as the Amoskeag Cotton & Woolen Manufacturing Company. It would be purchased in 1825 by entrepreneurs from Massachusetts, expanded to 3 mills in 1826, and then incorporated in 1831 as the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company.
On the eastern bank, Amoskeag engineers and architects planned a model company town, founded in 1838 with Elm Street as its main thoroughfare. Incorporated as a city in 1846, Manchester would become home to the largest cotton mill in the world -- Mill No. 11, stretching 900 feet long by 103 feet wide, and containing 4000 looms. Other products made in the community included shoes, cigars and paper. The Amoskeag foundry made rifles, sewing machines, textile machinery, fire engines, and locomotives in a division called the Amoskeag Locomotive Works (later, the Manchester Locomotive Works). The rapid growth of the mills demanded a large influx of workers, resulting in a flood of immigrants, particularly French Canadians. Many current residents descend from these workers. The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company went out of business in 1935, although its red brick mills have been renovated for other uses. Indeed, the mill town's 19th century affluence left behind some of the finest Victorian commercial, municipal and residential architecture in the state.
Manchester is nicknamed the Queen City. More recent nicknames for the city are ManchVegas and ManchHattan. In 1998, Manchester was named the "Number One Small City in the East" by Money magazine. The Mall of New Hampshire, on Manchester's southern fringe, is the city's main retail center.
|City of Manchester|
Population by year 
|1767 - 230|
1773 - 279
As of the census of 2000, there were 107,006 people, 44,247 households, and 26,105 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,251.6/km² (3,241.4/mi²). There were 45,892 housing units at an average density of 536.8/km² (1,390.2/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 91.75% White (this includes a large Bosnian population) 2.10% African American, 0.30% Native American, 2.32% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.76% from other races, and 1.73% from two or more races. 4.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Manchester is a national refugee relocation center.
There were 44,247 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.6% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.0% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.00.
In the city the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $40,774, and the median income for a family was $50,039. Males had a median income of $34,287 versus $26,584 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,244. 10.6% of the population and 7.7% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 14.6% are under the age of 18 and 11.7% are 65 or older.
The city is a refugee resettlement center. More than 10% of the city's population is currently foreign-born.
Manchester School District has four public high schools:
Manchester is served by three private high schools:
Area institutions of higher education, together enrolling more than 8,000 students, include: