Incorporated in 1942, the town's land was settled in the Land Run of 1892.
Location of Calumet, Oklahoma
Calumet incorporated in 1942 in order to construct a town water system. Prior to its incorporation, the town existed as an unincorporated community with a post office, three combination mills and elevators, two general stores, a furniture store, and a hardware store
The town lies in an area that in 1803 was part of the Louisiana Purchase.After the Organic Act of 1890 recreated the area as Oklahoma Territory, present-day Canadian County was designated as County Four and settled by non-Indian settlers through the Land Run of 1889, the Land Run of 1892, and a 1901 land lottery.The Land Run of 1892 opened up the surplus Cheyenne-Arapaho lands to non-Indian settlement, which opened up Calumet.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total land area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2), and no water.
The town lies just south of the North Canadian River, on the border of the Red Bed Plains and Gypsum Hills ecoregions of Oklahoma.
Calumet contains three schools housed in one building: an elementary school, a junior high, and a high school.A fourth school, Maple Public School, is separate from the Calumet school district.