Odessa is a city in and the county seat of Ector County, Texas,United States. It is located primarily in Ector County, although a small portion of the city extends into Midland County. Odessa's population was 99,940 at the 2010 censusmaking it the 31st-most populous city in Texas. It is the principal city of the Odessa, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Ector County. The metropolitan area is also a component of the larger Midland–Odessa combined statistical area, which had a population of 266,941 as of a July 1, 2009 estimate.
In 2014, Forbes magazine ranked Odessa as the third fastest-growing small city in the United States.
|City of Odessa|
Odessa City Hall in April 2014
Location in the state of Texas
Coordinates: 31°51′48″N 102°21′56″W
Odessa is named after the Ukrainian port city of the same name.
Odessa was founded in 1881 as a water stop and cattle-shipping point on the Texas and Pacific Railway. The first post office opened in 1885. Odessa became the county seat of Ector County in 1891 when the county was first organized. It became an incorporated city in 1927, after oil was discovered in Ector County on the Connell Ranch southwest of Odessa.
With the opening of the Penn Field in 1929, and the Cowden Field in 1930, oil became a major draw for new residents. In 1925, the population was just 750; by 1929, it had risen to 5,000. Due to increased demand for oil during the second world war, the city's population had expanded to 10,000.
In 2013, Odessa had the highest rate of violent crime in Texas, with 806.4 crimes per 100,000 inhabitants. The second most "dangerous city" was also in West Texas, Lubbock, with 658 crimes per 100,000 persons. The Mexican border cities of Laredo, El Paso, McAllen, and Brownsville ranked 10th, 13th, 18th, and 24th, respectively. Midland, with 280.5 crimes per 100,000 ranked 19th on the listing. The highest murder rate was in Beaumont-Port Arthur.
Odessa is located along the southwestern edge of the Llano Estacado in West Texas. It is situated above the Permian Basin, a large sedimentary deposit that contains significant reserves of oil and natural gas.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 36.9 square miles (96 km2), 36.8 square miles (95 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (0.19%) is covered by water.
The Midland-Odessa Symphony and Chorale (MOSC) was founded in 1962 has performed in the Permian Basin for over 51 years, and is the region's largest orchestral organization, presenting both Pops and Masterworks concerts throughout the year. Composed of professional musicians from the area, as well as Lubbock, San Angelo, and other surrounding cities, the MOSC also is home to three resident chamber ensembles, the Lone Star Brass, Permian Basin String Quartet, and West Texas Winds. These ensembles are made up of principal musicians in the orchestra, who come to the area from across the United States.
The Globe of the Great Southwest, located on the campus of Odessa College, the community collegein Odessa, features an authentic replica of William Shakespeare's Globe Theatre. It hosts plays and other community groups throughout the year, as well as an annual Shakespeare festival.
Built in 1951, the Ector Theater served as one Odessa's finest theaters until it closed. Today, the renovated 700-seat theater provides the community with classic movies, live theatrical productions, and concerts.
The Permian Playhouse has provided music, dance, drama, suspense, and comedy for over 40 years.
Odessa's Presidential Museum and Leadership Library, on the campus of the University of Texas of the Permian Basin, is the only facility of its kind in the United States—dedicated to the office of the Presidency, not any particular holder of the Oval Office. There are also displays about the Presidents of the Republic of Texas. The museum was pushed to fruition by the late State Representative George "Buddy" West of Odessa. The building itself is name for West and his wife, Shirley.
After fighting financial hardships, the Presidential Museum closed its doors to the public as of 21 August 2009. In February 2010, additional funding allowed the doors to reopen, with negotiations pending for the University of Texas of the Permian Basin to take control of the museum.
The White-Pool House east of downtown is the oldest surviving structure in Odessa. It was built in 1887 and opened as an historic house museum in 1984.
Texon Santa Fe Depot, recently relocated to West Odessa, serves as a museum in honor of the old west and the railroads.
The Parker House Museum is Odessa's newest addition to the historical records of Odessa. In 1935, the Parker family moved into this modest house located on 1,290 acres (5.2 km2). It represents the lifestyle of a prominent ranching family, who served the communities of Andrews and Ector Counties since 1907.
Odessa Meteor Crater, an impact crater 550 feet (170 m) in diameter, is located southwest of the city.
Odessa has a Stonehenge replica on the campus of the University of Texas of the Permian Basin. Completed in 2004, the replica is horizontally equal to the Stonehenge in England, but only 70% of the vertical height of the original.