Sheffield is an unincorporated community in Pecos County, Texas, United States. According to the Handbook of Texas, the community had an estimated population of 600 in 2000.
Sheffield is located at the intersection of U.S. Highway 290, State Highway 349, and FM 1217 on the eastern edge of Pecos County, approximately 16 miles southeast of Iraan and 60 miles east of Fort Stockton in eastern Pecos County.
The first documented Europeans to visit the area were Spanish explorer Gaspar Castaño de Sosa and his men, who traveled up the Pecos River in 1590. Although several Spanish-led expeditions followed, no permanent settlements were established in the area. In 1849, the Army surveyed the San Antonio-El Paso Road from San Antonio to El Paso and the route included what is now Sheffield because of the Pecos Spring and the Pecos Crossing or Lancaster Crossing, named for the nearby Fort Lancaster.
The first settler was John Cannon, who arrived in 1888 and purchased a tract along the Pecos River. A post office was established in 1898, with Will Sheffield as its first postmaster. Around 1900, a small settlement sprang up on land adjoining the Cannon ranch owned by Mr. Sheffield and the town became known as Sheffield. Another Sheffield pioneer was William Franklin Smith, who purchased and ranched part of the Sheffield land adjacent to the small community. The town prospered in the early 1900s as a supply point and social center for surrounding ranchers. The discovery of oil in the Trans-Pecos region during the 1920s radically altered the local economy. Sheffield became a stopping point for traveling motorists when U.S. Highway 290 was constructed during the 1920s. Sheffield grew slowly, from an estimated 124 inhabitants in 1925 to 350 by 1949. Natural gas production was introduced in 1971. Although the community was bypassed by Interstate 10, Sheffield continued to support several stores and businesses throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. In 2000, Sheffield was home to an estimated 600 inhabitants and fifteen businesses.
Although Sheffield is unincorporated, it has a post office, with the ZIP code of 79781.
Public education in the community of Sheffield is provided by the Iraan-Sheffield Independent School District.